The constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950. It sets the basic structure of government under which the people are governed. The nation's legislature and judiciary systems are solely dependent on its constitution as it defines the power of every organ and segregates the responsibilities of each. The constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any republic in the world, consisting of 448 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 118 amendments. Initially, the constitution had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules consisting of almost 80, 000 words. The constitution of India replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document. It is said that India achieved complete independence after the adoption of its constituent. Browse through the below given details and know more about the Constitution of India.
After the end of World War II in the year 1945, a new government came to power in the United Kingdom. The newly appointed government announced its Indian policy and decided to set up a constitution drafting body. A team of three cabinet ministers were sent to the India for finding a solution to the question of India's independence. The team of ministers was called Cabinet Mission. The team or Cabinet Mission discussed the framework of constitution with the Indian leaders. By August 1946, General election for the 296 seats of British Indian provinces was completed by and the constituent assembly of India began its work on November 26, 1946. The newly elected British government passed Indian Independence At on July 16, 1947 and on August 15, 1947 the nation was freed from the governance of British Empire. After obtaining freedom, constituent assembly drafted the constitution of India.
The constitution committee of India architectured the Constitution under the chairmanship of Dr Bheem Rao Ambedkar and took 2 years 11 months and 18 days to build it. For his splendid work in structuring and building the nation's constitution, Dr Bheem Rao Ambedkar is known as the father of the Indian Constitution. The foundation of Republic India was led by Pt Jawaharlal Nehru in the Lahore session of Indian National Congress, held in the midnight of December 31, 1930. The political leaders including Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad took the pledge for making a sovereign republic of India. In the meeting January 26 was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj (Complete Freedom) declaration of Independence.
The constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. India became sovereign, socialist, secular democratic republic after the adoption of constitution on January 26, 1950. The day of constitution adoption is celebrated across the country as Republic Day. The Constitution gives right of justice, equality and liberty to the citizens of India and endeavors to promote brotherhood among them. The constitution of India closely follows the legal traditions of British Parliament except the provision that the Constitution is supreme, not the Parliament. This provision of the Constitution gives authority to the courts for adjudicating any law passed by the Parliament.
The constitution of India provides freedom to Parliament and Judiciary system to bring amendment as per the current needs of Indian citizens. The procedure of amendment is laid out in Article no 36 of the constitution. For passing any amendment, it has to get two-third majority of both the houses of Parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha). It is necessary that amendment should respect the basic structure of the constitution. These are the important facts associated with the Constitution of India.
Constitution of India sets the basic structure of the government under which people are governed. Find here a brief outline of the Constitution of India.