After a century-long freedom struggle and sacrifices, India got its freedom from British rule on August 15, 1947. Indeed, it was such a pleasant moment for the nation that lived 200 years in slavery. The people in every corner of India celebrated the historical day. But, there were so many challenges that India had to face after independence. In 1947, India was as one of the poor countries in the world with a massive population of 350 million (estimated) people. Century long struggles and post independence communal riots made India economically weak and architecturally vanished. But systematic development programmes have completely changed the picture of India.
Now, India is one of the fast growing economies in the world with exceptional market potential. Since independence, India has undergone major political, cultural and economic changes and has emerged as the world's largest democracy with a population of 1.22 billion (estimated) people. Despite its steady growth and remarkable achievements, India has been facing cross border terrorism, inter-caste conflicts and communal tensions, since independence. At present, the economy of India is growing with a GDP (Gross Domestic Product) rate of 5.8%. India is third largest economy in the world by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP).
At the time of independence, India's economy was dependent only on Agriculture. But the hardship and process of continuous development has made this nation one of Information Technology (IT) giants in the 21 century. TCS, Infosys and Wipro are one of the largest software organizations in the world. Moreover, India has also registered remarkable growth in the field of science and engineering. All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) is counted amongst the finest medical institutions of the world with outstanding medical services. However, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Indian Space and Research Organization (ISRO) have played a vital role in establishing India as a technically equipped and scientifically evolved nation. Since Independence, India faced various wars from the neighboring countries China (1962) and Pakistan (1965, 1971, and 1999). Learning from the previous attacks, India has organized its armed force in such a manner so that any war like situation can be handled effectively. Indian force is now equipped with latest weapons that are capable to demolish enemies territory in few seconds. Most importantly, India is a nuclear weapon state having conducted its first nuclear test in the year 1974.
Apart from economical growth and military advancement, India has also evolved as a nation with higher literacy. Literacy rate of India was merely 12% at the time of independence, which is now reached at 74.01% (as per 2011 census). Though the literacy rate has been increased phenomenally, there is a wide gender disparity in the literacy rate of India. As per the records of census 2011, literacy rate for men were 82.14% and for women, it was only 65.46%. Well educated software experts and engineers of India are the back bone of global economy. Post independence, India has also achieved remarkable success in the field of telecommunication, automobiles, pharmacy and biopharmacy. As per the records, the telecommunication industry of India is the world's fastest growing communication market. However, the reach of Indian pharmaceutical industry is expected to achieve the marks of 48.5 billion US $ by 2020.
India has set a great example of colonial development with its remarkable success. In 1947, there were hurdles that India had to cross in order to justify its demand of freedom and with the support of its citizens, the nation has successfully crossed all hurdles and achieved unmatched success in every horizon.
This article is exclusively about the changes that India has seen since Independence.